Ludwig Hupfeld was the largest manufacturer of automatic musical instruments in the world! Hupfeld of Liepzip Germany made everything musical, from the most basic piano to the most complex orchestrions ever produced from the period of 1890 thru the beginning of WWII.
The variety and complexity requires a study of the Encyclopedia of Automatic Musical Instruments, pages 430 thru 461 for more information that we provide in this limited format.
Among the most popular Hupfeld products, the violin playing Phonolizst, and the Helios class instruments rank at the top of everyones list today. These instruments were remarkable for the ability to perform complex classsical music as popular songs of the day. The largest Helios models were the equal of large orchestra's and even today are amazing to hear and see!